L - O

77. LASTOVO, a small town above the northern coast in the north-eastern part of the island of Lastovo.

Apart from several late mediaeval small churches (St. Martin, St. Anthony, St. Blaise), Lastovo also features the oldest monument the parish church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian from 1473, later extended (16th/17th c.). The well-known Croatian printer Dobrić Dobričević (1454-1528) is of Lastovo descent.

78. LASTOVO, an island in the southern Dalmatian archipelago, 13 km south of the island of Korčula, separated from it by the Lastovo channel

Lastovo was mentioned as early as during the Greek colonization of the Adriatic, under the name of Ladesta. The cove of Ubli features the remains of Roman buildings and several structures from the early Middle Ages. At that time the island was under the Byzantine rule and in the 9th century it came under the Nerentani (Narentini). In AD 998 it was taken by the Venetians; in the 11th and the 12th centuries it belonged to Zahumlje (the pre-Romanesque church of St. Luke near Lastovo dates back to those times); in 1185 it fell under the power of the Hungarian-Croatian kings; in 1221 it was again under Zahumlje, and in 1252 came under Dubrovnik (in 1310 Lastovo got its communal autonomy and the Statute). In the period 1808-1813 Lastovo was occupied by France, from 1813 to 1815 it belonged to the British and from 1815 to 1918 to Austria. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Lastovo (together with the neighbouring islands) was ceded to Italy. After the Second World War the island passed to the mother country Croatia.

79. LAVSA, an island in the open sea range of the Kornati archipelago, between Piškera in the north-west and Gustac and Klobučar in the south-east; The deep inlet in the northern part of the island is the harbour of the temporary settlement of Lavsa. The island features the remains of a Roman saltern.

80. LOKRUM, a small island about 700 m southeast of Dubrovnik.

The name of the island was probably derived from the Latin word acrumen: sour fruit. The Benedictines built a monastery with a church in 1023. The three-nave basilica, built in Romanesque style, was twice extended, so that its bell tower (also the defence tower at the same time) remained within the church. The church, the old monastery and a part of the new monastery (from beginning of the 14th century) were severely damaged in the disastrous earthquake in 1667. A legend has it that, in a raging storm, the English king Richard the Lionhearted landed on Lokrum in 1191, when he was returning home from one of the Crusades. Several preserved churches include a small church of the Annunciation and the chapel of St. Blaise from 1557. Upon the request of the inhabitants of Dubrovnik, the Lokrum monastery was joined to the congregation of St. Justa in Padua in 1466, which later facilitated the intentions of the Venetians to take Lokrum. However, they were repelled by cannon-fire. The monastery was abandoned in 1798. During the Napoleonic wars the French erected Fort Royal, a fortification in the shape of a star, on the highest peak of the island. In the 1830s, Austria reinforced the fortification by construction of the so-called Maximilian's Tower. In 1859 Archduke Maximilian Habsburg bought the island and built a tower-shaped castle on the dilapidated part of the monastery. A park with exotic plants was arranged around the monastery. In the course of time the castle had several owners, among whom was also the Austrian heir to the throne, Rudolf. The Biological Institute of the Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences, a natural historic museum and the Ruđer Bošković Memorial Museum are now located on Lokrum.

Lokrum is the favourite excursion destination of the population of Dubrovnik, as well as of many tourists, only 10-15 minutes (by boat) from Dubrovnik. The islet is always green, with the luxuriant subtropical vegetation, a forest of holm oak, Mediterranean underbrush and Aleppo pine. Lokrum has a number of beautiful coves, beaches and promenades. It is also a protected nature park. The fortress, today a vista point, offers an unforgettable view on the island and the entire city of Dubrovnik. A special attraction of Lokrum is the small lake, called Mrtvo More (Dead Sea).

Lokrum may be reached from Dubrovnik by regular tourist boat lines, which depart from the old town port.

81. LOPUD, an island with the village bearing the same name and a small harbour in the Elaphite Islands group, northwest of Dubrovnik.

In ancient times Lopud was known as a Greek (Delaphodia), later as a Roman (Lafota) habitation. From the 11th century, Lopud was attached to the Dubrovnik Republic; from 1457 it was the seat of a principality. In the 15th century the island was settled by the refugees from the areas occupied by the Turks. The inhabitants of Lopud were oriented to seafaring from the early days. In the 16th century they participated with their ships in the invasions of Spanish rulers on Tunisia, Algeria, Portugal and England, so that the saying about the three hundred Vica widows of the fallen seafarers from Lopud became legendary (a poem based on the legend was written by Antun P. Kazali).

The oldest monuments on the island are the ruins of a pre-Romanesque church of St. Elias (wall painting), St. Peter, St. Nicholas, St. Maurice and St. John (fragments of "pleter" - interlacery ornaments). The cove of Lopud was defended by two fortresses: one on the peninsula and another one (Sutvrač, 1563) at the foot of the highest peak. At the entrance into the harbour is the Holy Trinity church (16th-17th c.). Above the harbour is the Franciscan monastery with a cloister from 1483, abandoned in 1808. The monastery church of St. Mary of Špilica keeps a number of valuable works: a polyptych by the Venetian painter Pietro di Govanni (1523), a triptych from the workshop of Nikola Božidarević, parts of a polyptych by Girolamo da Santacroce, The Crucifixion, a work by a member of the Venetian family Bassano, the painting of Mary in a Wreath of Flowers, a work by a Flemish Baroque painter, the carved choir stalls from the 15th century. Along the coast are the restored summer mansion of the Đorđić family (later Mayneri) with a nice park, as well as a deserted Dominican monastery, built in the transitional Gothic-Renaissance style (1482). On a prominent location above the village are the ruins of the Duke's Palace, a two-story Gothic structure with a terrace garden. On the south-eastern side of the island is the cove of Šunj, with the church of Our Lady of Šunj (12th c., reconstructed until the 17th c.) with the wooden, carved main altar; the church keeps a number of paintings: Our Lady with Child (Jacopo Palma the Elder), The Holy Family, The Annunciation (an early Baroque Umbrian painter), parts of the polyptych by Matej Junčić from 1452.

82. LOVIŠTE, a village on the southern coast of the cove of Luka, in the extreme north-western part of the Pelješac Peninsula.

In Roman times it was a port on the maritime communication Corcyra nigra (Korčula) - Narona (Vid near Metković); traces of a Roman villa rustica have also been found. There is also the church of the Heart of Mary from 1885.

83. LOŽIŠĆA (Ložišće), a village in the western part of the island of Brač, about 1 km east of Bobovišća; elevation 83 m; population 181. Economy is based on farming, vine and olive growing. Ložišća is located on the regional road running throughout the entire island. Above the cove of Vičja Luka is the hill-fort Rat (finds from the Bronze Age and from the Greek colonization period), and northeast of the village is the pre-Romanesque church of Our Lady of Stomorica from the 11th/12th century. The parish church from 1820 (with late Renaissance forms) was later reconstructed.

84. LUKA, a village in the cove of the same name, in the central part of the eastern coast of the island of Dugi Otok (Long Island), southeast of Vela Straža (338 m), the highest peak of the island.

The mediaeval church was later reconstructed. The painting The Dead Christ, part of an earlier polyptych, is a work by an anonymous local artist from the 15th century.

85. LUKORAN, a village in the central part of the north-eastern coast of the island of Ugljan, situated along the central fertile field.

Lukoran was first mentioned in 1075. In the Middle Ages it was an estate of the Benedictines from Zadar. The graveyard church has Romanesque features; reconstructed in the 17th century. - Below Zmorašnji Lukoran are the remains of a small Gothic church and other structures; a legend has it that they were built by Egyptian monks in the 14th century.

86. LUMBARDA, a village and harbour in the easternmost part of the island of Korčula, between the coves of Pržina and Bili Žal, 6 km southeast of the town of Korčula.

Several fragments of a Greek inscription from the 4th century BC, carved in stone (today kept at the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb), as well as the ruins of the mediaeval church of St. John, have been found on the Koludrt hill, north of the village. The Greek inscription is a psephism (assembly resolution) about the distribution of land to the inhabitants of the newly established colony. Apart from the Greek names, the list of colonists includes also some Illyrian names. Some other Greek artefacts have also been found in the area around Lumbarda (pottery, coins). Lumbarda features the mediaeval parish church of St. Roch (Rocco) (reconstructed in 1561 and 1886), several summer mansions of the former patricians of Korčula (erected from the 15th c. onward), the birth-houses of the sculptors Frano Kršinić (1897-1982) and Ivan Lozica (1910-1943, with a memorial plaque).

87. LJUBAČ, a village in northern Dalmatia on the coast of the bay of the same name, 21 km north of Zadar.

North of the village is a prehistoric fortification called Venac. On Cape Ljubljana are the remains of a mediaeval fortification of the Knights Templars (castrum Liuba) with the ruins of the church of a quite unique and original ground-plan: three identical semicircular apses in a quadrangular space, which were later attached to a narrow nave. The parish church features a beautiful Gothic chalice.

88. MAKARSKA, a town, port and tourist centre in a large cove, enclosed by Cape Osejava in the south-east, and the Sveti Petar (St. Peter) Peninsula, at the foot of Biokovo, in the north-west.

A legend has it that the ancient settlement, probably Muccurum, was destroyed in AD 548 by the Ostrogoth king Totila. Later, Makarska was one of the major strongholds of the Nerentani/Narentini (defeat of the Venetian fleet near Makarska in AD 887). Until the 14th century Makarska recognized the sovereignty of Croatian, that is Hungarian-Croatian rulers, in the period 1324-1463 it was under the power of the Bosnian rulers Kotromanić, from 1499 to 1646 it was under the Turks, from 1646 to 1797 under Venice and in the period 1815-1918 under Austria. On the coast are the Baroque church of St. Philip Neri and the building of a former monastery of the St. Philip monks, which retained its original aspect. A circular way around the Sveti Petar (St. Peter) Peninsula (lighthouse, foundations of the St. Peter's church from the 15th c. and the restored church of St. Peter, 1993) begins on the northern side of the King Zvonimir Coast (Obala kralja Zvonimira). South of the pier is Marineta, with a line of trees, stretching to the afforested Cape Osejava. Close to it is a Franciscan monastery from 1400 (restored in 1540, today's aspect since 1614), with a cloister. The old monastery one-nave church, with a Baroque bell tower from 1715, has been converted into an art gallery (The Assumption of Mary by Pieter de Coster from 1760). The monastery cloister houses the Malacological Collection. From the pier, the centre of Makarska may be reached by the stairway to Kačić Square, with a monument to the poet Andrija Kačić Miošić (1889, work by Ivan Rendić); on the upper side of the Square is the Baroque parish, until 1828 bishop's, church of St. Mark (1700-1776). The church features the silver altar of Our Lady of the Rosary (1818) and the marble incrusted main altar (a Venetian work from the 18th c.). Along the southern side of the church is a Baroque fountain from 1775.

89. MALI STON, a village and harbour in the cove of Mali Ston channel, on the slopes of Bartolomija (224 m, with a vista point), 1 km northeast of Ston.

Mali Ston was founded by the inhabitants of Dubrovnik in 1334. It is enclosed by the ramparts in a rectangular shape; their mainland side was built in the period 1336-1347, and the side overlooking the sea in 1358, together with the Harbour Gate. According to a town plan from 1335, three blocks of houses were built; the streets intersect at a right angle. The construction of a strong fortress (with five towers overlooking the sea) started on an elevation on the southern side, in 1347. The fortress was later called Koruna. The so-called Great Wall extends from the fortress toward Ston, with a branching path toward the Pozvizd fortress (1335), located on top of the hill bearing the same name. The harbour of Mali Ston, finished in 1490, was built on the model of the town port of Dubrovnik. In the middle of Mali Ston is the church from the mid-14th century, reconstructed on several occasions; one of its bells was cast in 1419 in Dubrovnik.

90. MARANOVIĆI, a village in the interior of the south-eastern part of the island of Mljet, 14 km southeast of Babino Polje.

In the middle of the village is a two-storey Baroque house of the Peš family (18th c.). The ground floor comprises wine cellars ("konobe"), in the first floor is a nice, luxuriant hall; in front of the house is a garden with a terrace. - The parish church of St. Anthony was built in the 19th century on the location of an earlier monastery church (first mentioned in the 17th c.); some Gothic architectural elements have been built into the present church. It features a Gothic chalice with the coat of arms of the Hungarian feudal family Bubek (15th c.). - Above the village are the ruins of the church of St. Mary of the Hill, built in the transitional Gothic-Renaissance form. Inscriptions in the church were made in red colour (15th. c); between them is the representation of a ship.

91. MARINA, a village and small harbour in the interior part of the Marina bay, 12 km west of Trogir.

The settlement was planned in the 16th century. In the period 1495-1500 the bishops of Trogir built a quadrangular tower on the islet in the bay. The tower has console battlements (the channel between the mainland and the tower was filled up and levelled at the beginning of the 20th c.); the structure was repaired during the Candian war in 1657 and 1717; reconstructed in 1971/1972. The church of St. John has Gothic and Renaissance elements. In the field close to the village there is a small Gothic church of St. Luke with the coat of arms of the Sobota family.

92. MASLINICA, a village and harbour in the cove of the same name, on the western coast of the island of Šolta.

A four-storey tower with loopholes (located in the cove) dates back to the end of the 17th century. A two-storey Baroque castle with a quadrangular yard was attached to it in 1708; above the main gate is an inscription with the coat of arms of the Martinis-Marchi family. The fishermen's village developed on the coast during the 18th century. - On the islet of Stipanska are the ruins of the early Christian basilica of a longitudinal ground-plan with a semicircular apse.

93. METKOVIĆ, a town and port in the lower course of the Neretva river, 20 km from the river mouth; situated on the left bank of the Neretva and on a slope of the Gledavac hill (247 m).

Metković was first mentioned in 1422 as a border town of the Venetian, then the French and Austrian Dalmatia toward the Ottoman Empire. The present neo-Romanesque parish church of St. Elias was built on the location of an earlier church. The old town core of Metković, with stone houses and narrow Mediterranean-style streets, dates back to the 19th century. - The regulation of the Neretva river and the construction of the port were finished around 1890.

Kula Norinska, a village on the right bank of the Neretva, 6 km southwest of Metković. The village features a well preserved cylindrical tower, partly encircled by ramparts. It was built by Kodža Mustafa-Pasha Ušćuplija around 1500; at the end of 1685, it was taken by the Venetian governor Pietro Valier, supported by local people.

94. MILNA, a small town and harbour in the cove of the same name, on the western coast of the island of Brač, 20 km southwest of Supetar.

Milna developed at the beginning of the 17th century. The parish church Our Lady of the Annunciation from 1783 has a monumental Baroque front and a cycle of stuccoes (Rococo) from the early 19th century. The late Baroque altarpiece The Annunciation is a work by Sebastian Ricci. Apart from the sculptures of Sts. Joseph and Jerome in the parish, Ivan Rendić has made a tombstone of Stjepan Tomaš with Secession and folklore motifs. In the cove of Osibova are the ruins of a small Gothic church. - During the Napoleonic wars, the Russian fleet had its base in Milna (1800).

95. MLINI, a small harbour on the northern coast of the Župa Bay, 11 km southeast of Dubrovnik. The brooks and streams which flow from the nearby sources were once used for water mills; today, the natural fall of waters is used for a small hydro-electric power plant. The upper part of the hamlet (Trgovište) lies along the main road. In the vicinity of the beach are the parish church of St. Hilarius from 1449 and the chapel of St. Roch (Rocco). Close to the church, on the way toward Cavtat, are the remains of Roman structures. In the western part of the village is the Stay summer mansion with the boat storage ("orsan").

96. MLJET, an island in the southern Dalmatian archipelago, south of the Pelješac Peninsula, separated from it by the Mljet channel.

On the peak of Mali Gradac (close to Babine Kuće) are the remains of an Illyrian fortification. The island was mentioned in Roman times under the name Melite. The remains from that period may be found all over the island - Pomena, Žare, Pinjevica. The ruins of palaces and of an early Christian basilica in Polače date back from the beginning of the early Middle Ages. Around 536-537 the island became part of the Eastern Roman Empire. Later it fell under the power of the Nerentani/Narentini and after that under the power of Zahumlje. Small pre-Romanesque churches of St. Pancras, St. Andrew and St. Michael in Babino Polje. In 1151, the grand prefect of Zahumlje, Desa, bestowed the entire island upon the Benedictines (from the abbey Pulsano at Monte Gargano in Apulia), who erected their abbey and church on the islet in Big Lake. The Bosnian viceroy Stephen gave the island of Mljet to the Dubrovnik Republic in 1333; from that time the island was under the power of the duke who resided in Babino Polje. In 1345 Mljet got its statutes. Several churches were built in Gothic style (the parish church in Babino Polje, the Holy Trinity in Prožura, St. Vitus in Korita - all of them dating back to the 15th c.). The ruins of the church of St. Mary of the Hill date back to the transitional period between Gothic and Renaissance (above Maranovići). The profane architecture is represented by several typical structures (Renaissance palace of the Mljet duke in Babino Polje, several Baroque houses from the 17th-18th c. in Korita).

Mljet National Park (since 1960) is situated in the north-western part of the island.

In the southern bay of Big Lake is an islet, about 200 m long and 120 m wide, on which the Benedictines built a monastery with the church of St. Mary in the 12th century. The church of St. Mary has Romanesque features. The vestibule with high reliefs (saints' representations) was probably built at the turn between the 12th and the 13th century. In front of it is the Renaissance portico with the coat of arms of the Gundulić family from the 16th/17th century. The defence tower with a quadrangular ground-plan dates back to the same period. On the north-eastern side of the church is a Romanesque bell tower. During the Baroque period, two side chapels with altars were attached to the church. In the 16th century, the old monastery building with a cloister and a large cellar on the pier side were integrated in a Renaissance two-storey building with a 30-m long front terrace. At that time the monastery complex was fortified (defence walls and towers in the southern corner). In 1869 the monastery was secularized and abandoned; until 1941 it housed the forest management of the island of Mljet; in 1959-1960 it was converted into a hotel. In recent times the church has been reintroduced as a sacral structure. The function of the monastery is still an open issue. The patron saint's day is the Assumption (15th of August). The monastery of Mljet was inhabited by several monks who were famous writers of Dubrovnik: Mavro Vetranović (1482-1576), Mavro Orbini (?-1614), Ignjat Đurđević (1675-1737), who described his life on Mljet in the epic Suze Marunkove (The Tears of Marunko).

The island of Mljet, with its National Park - a natural phenomenon set aside and protected by the highest form of nature conservation due to its landscape, vegetation, geological, cultural and historical values - ranks among the most attractive island landscapes. It is famous for its wildlife - fallow deer, wild boars and especially for mongooses, which were brought in 1910 to exterminate venomous snakes - it seems that the island has always lived in legends, such as the one about a visit of Paul the Apostle or Emperor August

97. MOLAT, an island in the Zadar archipelago, southeast of the island of Ist, separated from it by the Zapuntel strait.

In 1151 the island became the property of the Zadar-based Benedictine monastery of St. Krševan; from 1409 it was under the power of Venice, which leased it to several families from Zadar. During the Italian occupation in the period 1941-1943 Molat was a concentration camp.

98. MOLUNAT, a village on the coast of Sutorina in Konavle.

In the vicinity of the village are prehistoric tumuli and in the village the remains of Roman architecture. On the mainland side, a wall, erected in the period 1468-1471 by the inhabitants of Dubrovnik, protects the small peninsula.

99. MURTER, a village in the north-western part of the island of Murter.

Murter was first mentioned in the 15th century. The remains of Roman structures, probably the remains of the ancient settlement of Collentum, have been found at the foot of an elevation called Gradina, in the cove of Hramina and elsewhere. - On the cape of Gradina is the local cemetery, where early Croatian graves have been found. At the cemetery is the church of Our Lady in Gradina from the 17th century. The parish church of St. Michael features a Baroque altar, a work by masters Pio and Vicko dall'Acqua and an icon by the Cretan-Venetian school. The parsonage keeps a Gothic-Renaissance processional crucifix and several valuable paintings. - Above the village, on the Vršina hill, is the church of St. Roch (Rocco) from 1760.

100. MURTER, an island in the north-western part of the Šibenik archipelago.

The earliest inhabitants of the island were the Illyrians (remains of the Illyrian-Roman settlement of Collentum near Betina). In the Middle Ages the island was called Srimač; the name Insula Mortarii was also mentioned. In the 13th century there were two villages on the island, Veliko Selo (Big Village) (today's Murter) and Jezera (Lakes); Betina and Tisno developed most probably during the Turkish invasions.

101. NEČUJAM, a tourist resort and excursion destination in the cove of the same name on the northern coast of the island of Šolta.

In the back part of the cove, on it eastern side, are the remains from ancient times; close to them are the ruins of a small Gothic church (15th c.). Next to the church is a simple stone house, which once belonged to Dujam Balistrilić, a friend of the poet Marko Marulić, who also used to reside in it; the house features a memorial collection of Marko Marulić; in front of the house is a memorial pillar dedicated to the poet Petar Hektorović.

102. NEREŽIŠĆA (Nerežišće), a village in the interior of the island of Brač, 10 km south of Supetar.

Until the end of the 18th century, Nerežišća was the administrative centre of the island. The early Christian church of St. Tudor, west of the village, was reconstructed in the 12th-13th century. In the vicinity are also the churches of St. George and St. Nicholas, from the transitional Romanesque-Gothic period. the village also features the Gothic churches of St. Marguerite and St. Peter. The church of St. Peter has a stone relief of the Blessed Virgin with saints, a work by Nikola Lazanović from 1578. Among residential structures, preserved are the Gothic house Garafulić and the Renaissance palace Harašić. On the square, next to the parish church, is a relief of the Venetian lion with an inscription from 1545 and a spear post with a lion and chiselled coats of arms. The parish church was mentioned in the 13th century; it was reconstructed in 1583; another reconstruction started in the 18th century. In 1746, Ivan Macanović attached a new, monumental bell tower to it. The church features a large Renaissance wooden altar, the late Renaissance altarpiece by Carlo Ridolfi (first half of the 17th c.), several Baroque paintings and the organ by Petar Nakić from 1753.

103. NEVIĐANE, a village and harbour 3 km northwest of the town of Pašman.

The village was first mentioned in 1067 (named after the local monastery of St. Neviana); devastated during the Candian war in the 17th century. - Next to the present parish church (end of the 19th c.) are the ruins of a church from 1670. At the cemetery is the ruin of a church built in 990 (reconstructed in the 15th c.); above its door is a Gothic relief of St. Michael (15th c.). West of the village are the ruins of a small church of St. Martin from the 9th to the 11th centuries.

104. NIN, a coastal town in the southern part of the Nin Bay on the Ždrijac peninsula, 17 km north of Zadar. It developed on a low alluvial peninsula, which was converted into an islet by a canal dug in the 14th century; connected with the mainland by small bridges.

The area around Nin was populated as early as the prehistoric times. In Roman times, Nin (Aenona) was an important centre of the ancient Liburnia and was granted municipal self-government. The Croatian mediaeval settlement was mentioned under the name of Nona by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (10th c.). During the period of national rulers Nin was the parish seat and the seat of the "Croatian bishop", whose jurisdiction stretched all over the entire territories of Croatia. Nin was the residence of Croatian kings and occasionally also the place where diets and synods were taking place. From the 12th century Nin recognized the power of Hungarian-Croatian rulers. In 1328 it came under the protection of Venice (privilege deed from 1329) and remained under the Venetian rule until 1797, with an interruption from 1358 to 1409.

Remains of the ancient settlement on the islet include the remains of a forum, upon which a monumental temple from the 1st century was built. In the later periods of the Empire the temple had the function of an Augusteum, so it has been assumed that it had housed the statues of Roman emperors found in the forum (today kept at the Archaeological Museum in Zadar). Pre-Romanesque remains are represented by a small church of the Holy Cross, with a cross-shaped ground-plan and a cupola. It has the adorned stone lintel with the carved name of the prefect Godežav. The inscription with the name of Duke Branimir (second half of the 9th c) originates from the former church of St. Michael, today kept in the church of the Holy Cross. The present parish church of St. Anselmo was built on the location of an old Romanesque-Gothic cathedral, whose remains include a side chapel and the reliefs of saints, built-in along the northern portal. Its treasury keeps reliquaries from around AD 800. The main altar of the side chapel features a Gothic sculpture of Madonna with Child. The hexagonal stone baptismal font with the inscription mentioning Duke Višeslav (around 800) also originates from Nin; today it is kept at the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments in Split. Parts of the walls have been preserved of the mediaeval fortification system. The local Archaeological Collection keeps stone fragments from ancient and mediaeval times. Close to Nin, along the road toward Zaton, is a small pre-Romanesque church of St. Nicholas in Prahulje (11th c.), erected on a prehistoric mound. It has a trefoil ground-plan and a cupola, above which an observation tower was built during the wars with the Ottoman Turks.

Vrsi, a village in Ravni Kotari, 7 km northeast of Nin. It was first mentioned in 1387. The church of St. Michael the Archangel dates back to the 17th century.

105. NOVIGRAD, a village and port on the southern coast of the Novigrad Sea, next to the submerged mouth of the Draga brook.

Novigrad was first mentioned as a castrum at the beginning of the 13th century. On a hill above the village is a fortress from the 13th century, built by the counts Gusić-Kurjaković. In 1386-1387 Jelisava, wife of King Louis I Angevin, and her daughter Marija, wife of King Sigismund, were captivated in it; Jelisava was murdered here as well. - The fortification system has been partly preserved. Fragments of stone tablets with "pleter" (interlacery ornaments) have been preserved in the pre-Romanesque graveyard church. - The parish church of St. Martin, that is its older, trefoil-shaped part, probably dates back to the early Christian times.

Pridraga, a village in Ravni Kotari, 3 km southeast of Novigrad. The church of St. Martin, built in the 5th or 6th century, had been preserved in its original form until the aggression upon Croatia (1991-1992), when it was badly damaged and restored again. It is a one-nave structure with the trefoil sanctuary; the remains of an octagonal baptistery have been found next to the church. Close to it are the remains of a six-foil early Croatian church of St. Michael, built on the remains of a Roman villa. Valuable remains of the church stone furniture originate from this church. A little farther, on the Goričina hill, is an early Croatian graveyard.

106. OBROVAC, a town and port on the left bank of the Zrmanja river, 11 km upstream of its estuary in the Novigrad Sea.

Obrovac was the original location of an important Roman settlement, Clambetae (today the hill-fort Cvijina Gradina, about 3 km southwest of Obrovac). A part of the urban unit of an ancient settlement, with the remains of town streets and structures, has been found here. The most important remains include a temple and the thermal facilities. - Obrovac was first mentioned in the sources of Croatian rulers under the name Obrovez. Until 1527 it was part of the estates of the counts of Krbava; upon that it fell under the Turkish rule; in 1684 it was taken by Venice. Above the town are the ruins of a fortified town, extended and fortified by the dukes of Krbava, then by the Turks and the Venetians. - The parish church below the hill-fort was erected after the withdrawal of the Turks; it was restored in the 18th century. - On the steep slopes of the Zrmanja canyon are the ruins of Turkish fortifications.

Krupa, a village on the slopes of southern Velebit, 24 km northeast of Obrovac. Close to the village (2 km) is a monastery, founded probably by Eastern Orthodox monks from Bosnia, who fled from the Turks. The monastery structures have well-preserved Gothic windows; the church is a one-nave structure with a round cupola. It features the luxuriantly carved Royal Doors, a collection of icons from the 17th and the 18th centuries, as well as silver objects from the 18th century, of Venetian origin.

Zvonigrad, the ruins of a mediaeval town above the Zrmanja. It was mentioned around 1222 as an estate of Duke Višan; in 1412 it belonged to Count Nelipić and in 1435 to Count Frankopan. Upon that it was owned by the dukes of Kurjaković and Karlović.

107. OLIB, an island in the Zadar archipelago, east of the island of Silba.

The island was populated as early as Roman times. In the 10th century it was mentioned under the name of Aloip by Constantine Porphyrogenitus. From 1409 Venice leased it to the families from Zadar. In 1476 it was populated by the refugees who fled from the Turks and brought a large wooden cross (15th c.). - The parish church of St. Stošija (Anastasia) in the village of Olib dates back to 1632 (restored in 1868); the parsonage keeps about 20 Glagolitic codices (16th-19th c.), a collection of antiquities and folk artefacts. The other, later church was restored in 1586. At the entrance into the port is a citadel (Kaštel) from the 18th century, used for defence against the pirates. In the cove of Banjve are the remains of a habitation from Roman times (foundations of structures), the ruins of the three-nave church of St. Paul and a hermitage abandoned and devastated around 1200.

108. OMIŠ, a small town and port at the mouth of the Cetina river in the littoral of Poljica,

Populated as early as Roman times (One-um), Omiš was a fortified town in the Middle Ages. In the 12th and the 13th centuries the town was under the rule of the counts Kačić, and in the 14th century under the Bribir counts of Šubić. It had many rulers and masters in its past; in 1444 it came under the power of Venice. The remains of mediaeval fortifications include the southern town gate with a part of the walls, the south-western quadrangular tower on "Fošal", the fortification on the cliff above the town and the grandiose ruins of the fortress Starigrad (Fortica) on the hill above Omiš (311 m). The main street leads from the southern gate toward the Cetina, along with the "Fošal". On the square is the parish church from the 17th century with a nice portal (1621) and a bell tower; it features two paintings by the painter Matteo Ingoli from Ravenna and a Gothic wooden cross from the 15th century. One of the Renaissance-style houses close to the church houses the local museum collection (archaeological, cultural, historical and ethnographic exhibits from the region of Omiš and the nearby Poljica). At the end of the main street is a small church of the Holy Spirit from the 16th century; the Renaissance wooden altar features the painting Descent of the Holy Spirit by the Venetian painter J. Palma the Younger. Next to the church is a clock tower. Below it is the stairway to the upper part of the town. Along the river is the house of the Radman family with a collection of stone fragments (ancient times, Gothic, Renaissance) and cultural and historical artefacts (18th-19th c.). On the right bank of the Cetina is the locality of Priko with a small pre-Romanesque church of St. Peter (10th c.), mentioned in the deeds of national rulers from the 10th and the 11th centuries. - The Franciscan monastery, built in the 18th century, has a collection of works of art, the archives containing Turkish documents and a library.

Gata, a village at the foot of Mosor in the hinterland of Omiš, 8 km northeast of Omiš. An early Christian basilica from the 6th century has been found there, with outstanding marble reliefs (The Resurrection of Christ) of the Justinian era. The present Baroque parish church of St. Cyprian was erected in the very centre of the early Christian church. - In the village is also the monument to commemorate the victims of the Chetnik terror in the Second World War.

109. OPUZEN, a small town on the left bank of the Neretva river, 12 km upstream from its mouth.

Opuzen was mentioned in the Middle Ages under the name Posrednica. In the 14th century it was a market-town of the Dubrovnik Republic (burned down in 1472); at the end of the 15th century it was the location of a fortress called Koš; in 1685 the Venetians built another fortress (Fort Opus) on the same location. - The parish church was erected in the neo-classicist order. The vestibule of the municipal hall keeps several sculptures from the ancient Narona. South of Opuzen is the hamlet of Podgradina with the remains of the mediaeval fortification Brštanik, built in 1373 by the Bosnian king Tvrtko; it was destroyed in the 15th century by the Turks, and restored by the Venetians and Austrians (1878).

110. ORAŠAC, a village in the Dubrovnik littoral, at the foot of Vračevo Brdo (Sorcerer's Hill) (442 m) and Golo Brdo (Bare Hill) (298 m), which protect the village from the cold northerly winds, 20 km northwest of Dubrovnik.

The church of Our Lady of Orašac (15th c.) was restored in Baroque style. Below the village are the remains of the fortified castle Arapovo-Morovo (15th c.). Next to the two-storey Đanović tower (16th c.) are chapels, residences and farm-steads.

111. OREBIĆ (Orebići), a small town on the southern coast of the Pelješac Peninsula.

In the past Orebić was an important maritime centre; until the 16th century it was called Trstenica and was the duke's seat under the Dubrovnik administration (1343-1806). - Stone tumuli and fortifications (on the hills of Gruda and Vižanjica) date back to the prehistoric times. The traces of a Roman habitation (remains of a Roman villa - villa rustica, graves) have been found as well. The small Baroque church has an early Christian marble relief built-in above the door of the closed arcade. Orebić has also the Maritime Museum. The Gothic-Renaissance Franciscan monastery (15th c.) is located 2 km west of Orebić; it features a collection of works of art. The monastery church was built in 1486 by Mihoč Radišić; the main portal features the relief of Madonna, a work by an anonymous disciple of N. Fiamberti; in the church is another relief of Madonna, made by Nikola Firentinac (Nicholas of Florence). - On the hill above the monastery is a Gothic church, restored in Baroque style, dedicated to Our Lady of Karmen. Next to it are ancient sarcophagi and several age-old, huge cypresses, as well as a Baroque loggia and the ruins of the Trstenica duke's castle.