80. VARAŽDIN, a city on the right bank of the Drava river in north-western Croatia, 79 km northeast of Zagreb; First mentioned in 1181. The present town gradually developed near the fortress (Stari Grad). It was chartered as the free royal town by King Andrew II in 1209, and the privileges were confirmed by Bela IV in 1220. At the end of the 14th century the fortress passed into the hands of the counts Celjski. In the centuries to come the Varaždin fortress changed several owners, the most influential of them being Beatrica Frankopan, Margrave Juraj of Brandenburg, and finally Baron Ivan Ungnad who restored and reinforced the existing fortification. At the end of the 16th century the counts of ErdÂdy became its owners, who assumed the hereditary position of Varaždin prefects (župan). The period of the Reformation and the Counter-reformation underlie the most powerful cultural influence Varaždin has ever experienced. With the arrival of the Jesuit Order the grammar school and the Zakmardi Convict were founded, Jesuit churches and monasteries were built (the beginnings of the Baroque art and architecture in the town). The 18th-century Varaždin is the seat of many Croatian noblemen of Civil Croatia (the Draškovićs, the Keglevićs, the Patačićs, the Sermages, etc.), and in 1775 it became the administrative centre of the institutions of Civil Croatia, the Banal Court, the Croatian Royal Council (from 1767) and the Cameral School (1769 - 1772). The fire of 1776 destroyed most of the town, resulting in the administrative and political institutions moving back to Zagreb. Restored after the fire, due to the large number of cultural and historical monuments it represents even today the most important cultural and art centre of northern Croatia.
Patačić-Puttar Palace stands in front of the southern entrance into the town centre, at the corner of Cesarčeva and Zagrebačka streets. The two-storey angular house with the richly adorned stone portal featuring the coat of arms of the Patačićs has a bow window between the wings. Much of the palace was finished in mixed Baroque and classicist styles by the Varaždin builder Joseph Hauk in 1745. Opposite Patačić-Puttar Palace is the building of the Croatian National Theatre, built in 1873. The historicist building in the neo-Renaissance style was designed by the Viennese architect Hermann Gotlieb Helmer, and constructed by the Zagreb builder Janko Jambriščak. Today's mural painting on the ceiling is a work by M. Stančić.
The parish church of St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Varadin, stands in the middle of Trg Slobode (Freedom Square). Originally a Romanesque building, the church was still in 1672 a Gothic structure with three-naves and the pentagonal sanctuary; the present church with side chapels and the broad sanctuary was constructed during the Baroque restoration between 1753 and 1761, much of which was carried out by M. Mayerhofer according to the designs by I. S. Wagner, and finished by his accomplice A. Poch. The fresco (1771) featuring the 18th-century Varaždin is behind the main altar. The interior furnishing and church items date back to the Baroque period. The belfry from 1494 rises by the church.
The monastery and the church of the nuns order of St. Ursula are on the western side of Uršulinska Street. The church of the Nativity of Christ, with a projected front, was built in 1729; the three-storey monastery by the church was finished in 1749, and has a classicist façade. The monastery chapel on the floor has the altar adorned with statues made by the 18th-century Maribor master J. Straub.
North of the monastery of St. Ursula there is the most distinguished historic building of Varaždin, recently named Stari Grad (the Old Town). The centre of feudal administration for centuries, excluded from the free royal town of Varaždin. It served for residential and defence purposes, and since 1925 it accommodates the collections of the Town Museum of Varaždin. It was built between the 14th and the 19th centuries. The oldest preserved parts include two Gothic towers, erected on earlier fundaments. The fragments of the monumental pointed arch of the former main entrance and the stone reliefs with motifs of fish bladder and rose can still be seen. The mediaeval fortress was reconstructed in the 1560s into a modern Renaissance fortress, surrounded by embankments and moat, to enable defence against the Ottoman Turks. The works were carried out by Italian builders from the surroundings of Como according to the design and under the supervision of the master Domenico dell'Allio. The fortress resembled a castle with two large courtyards and three-storey corridors. A double window was cut into the southern wall of the former main tower. Two smaller inner halls were built during the 18th century. In the restoration of 1989 the winding stairway from the first floor to the alcove of the main tower (according to the original form) was reconstructed.
Sermage Palace, a two-storey corner building in Rococo style from 1759 rises at the southern end of Miljenko Stančić Square. The front façade is ornamented with medallions, the stone portal and a balcony. The representative hall with a stone lantern attached to the Baroque galleries facing the courtyard was built in the second half of the 18th century. Today the palace accommodates the Gallery of Old and New Masters. Lisak Tower on Ban Jelačić Square is a massive, two-storey building from the 16th century, the only remaining part of the former town walls.
The Town Hall, the most significant historical building in Varaždin, is on the northern side of Tomislav Square. A part of it is probably a Romanesque building with the visible Gothic arch of the former entrance in the tower; reconstructed in the 16th century under the supervision of the Varaždin builder Juraj Fleischman. Its present aspect dates back to the 1793 reconstruction carried out by the most renowned Varaždin masons and stone carvers in the 18th century, M. Taxner and F. Lossert, who finished the façade in 1793 in late Baroque and classicist forms by erecting a tower rising above the roof. The carved portal with the balcony and the town coat of arms below the tower were made by the stone carver L. Vieter in 1792.
Drašković Palace is on the eastern side of Tomislav Square. The axis of the main front has a mid-18th century stone portal featuring the coat of arms of the Drašković family. The construction of the present palace and the Rococo façade date back probably to the second half of the 18th century, under the owner at that time, the Croatian viceroy (ban) Franjo Nadásdy. The added southern wing of the building hosted the sessions of the Croatian Diet (Sabor) from 1756 to 1776.
The former Jesuit monastery and the church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary are opposite the Town Hall. The church was originally a Jesuit church, then Pauline, and today it is the cathedral of the Varaždin Diocese. Built between 1642 and 1646; the bell tower from 1676 was erected by Peter Julijan from Ptuj. The portal of the church featuring the coat of arms of the Drašković family was constructed in 1656. The present form of the façade dates from the 18th century. The chapel of St. Francis Xavier was adorned in 1710 with stucco work by A. J. Quadrio. The present main altar is a large retable with the attic from 1737, many figures and the painting of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. The altars of St. Ignatius of Loyola from 1742 and St. Francis Xavier from 1743, the statues made by the Varaždin sculptor Ivan Adam Rosemberger, are very fine examples. The choir stalls from the Lepoglava church with the paintings featuring scenes from the lives of Pauline saints, made by I. Ranger in 1737, are situated along the wide walls of the sanctuary. The vault of the church sacristy was painted with frescos in 1772 by the Varaždin painter B. Grueber. The Loreto chapel with the tomb of the Drašković family, built before 1659, is near the church. The three-storey Jesuit monastery by the church was built by Jakob Schmerleib between 1679 and 1691. The corridors are adorned with stucco from the 18th century featuring scenes from the Old Testament, probably a work by A. J. Quadrio.
The building of the old Varaždin grammar school, today the Bishop's Ordinariate, is to the east of the church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. The building was partly built in 1651 and expanded in the 19th century. South of the church and the monastery is the monumental building of the former Jesuit seminary, known also as Zakmardi Palace. It was built at the expense of the royal protonotary Ivan Zakmardi Dijankovečki and intended to accommodate poor students of the Varaždin grammar school. It was constructed by the Varaždin builders Jakob and Blaž Jančić between 1668 and 1672. Where Tomislav Square meets Franjevački Square, on the northern side, there is the house of the Ritz family, one of the oldest urban houses in Varaždin. Reconstructed in the 19th century and restored in 1988 to its original Renaissance style with the arcaded porch in the ground floor; the stone lintel of the small gate has carved initials of the names and the inscription of the year 1540.
The most beautiful Rococo building in Varaždin - Patačić Palace - is on the left side of Franjevački Square; it was commissioned by the Varaždin nobleman Franjo Patačić in 1764. It is a three-storey building with a bow window. The main front has the richly adorned portal in Rococo style, with columns bearing the attic ornamented with wavy tendrils and vases. The monumental palace of the Varaždin County leans on the palace from the west. The two-storey building with the lavishly ornamented stone portal and the balcony as well as with the trefoil gable over the roof was built by the Varaždin builder Jakob Erber. It was damaged in the great fire of 1776, and reconstructed in 1779. Opposite the palace is the three-storey angular Patačić-Bužan Palace. The central axis of the building has the stone portal with pilasters and the profiled wavy attic with late Baroque vases, built around 1785. The Franciscan church of St. John the Baptist, a building first mentioned in the documents of the 13th century and reconstructed in Baroque style, is on the northern side of Franjevački Square; rebuilt in Baroque style in 1650 (by Peter Rabb from Graz) and consecrated in 1657. The five-storey tower was erected in 1641; the portal dates back to 1655. The side niches accommodate stone statues of St. Francis Assisi and St. Anthony of Padua, made by the Varaždin sculptor I. J. Altenbach in the mid-17th century. A. J. Quadrio ornamented the chapels of St. Joseph (end of 17th c.), St. Anthony of Padua and Our Lady Škapularska (1717) with the valuable stucco work. The main altar was built between 1698 and 1702 according to the design by Krištof Zettle and polychromed by the Zagreb painter Joakim Schmidt. The statues were probably made by the Maribor sculptor F. K. Reiss. The side altars date from the period between 1725 and 1748, and much of the work on them was done by the Varaždin sculptor Ivan Adam Rosemberger. The mannerist pulpit with the figures of Christ and the apostles dates back to 1670. The three-storey monastery with a square cloister assumed its present form in 1678, part of it being subsequently expanded. The so-called Franciscan Pharmacy is ornamented with frescos by I. Ranger from 1750 featuring the Blessed Virgin Mary with allegorical figures of the known continents and natural elements. Herzer Palace (1721-1795) rises near the site of the Franciscan church, on the northern end of the square. This two-storey building with the monumental portal still displaying Baroque features is the most harmonious early classicist palace of Varaždin. The palace has permanent holdings of the Entomological Department of the Varaždin Town Museum.
There are several important churches and palaces on the outskirts of the former historical centre. The votive church of St. Florian, built in 1738 and reconstructed on several occasions, is situated along the northern wall of the fortification system. The portico with angel statues, possibly a work by the famous Styrian sculptor J. Straub, is in front of the main entrance. The interior of the church has quality furnishings; the big tabernacle of the main altar was made by Matija Saurer in 1740; his work are also the wooden stalls with Rococo ornamentation from the first half of the 18th century. The church holds the most valuable Varaždin painting, a representation of the big fire of 1776. The church of the Holy Trinity, built in 1705, is on the western side of Kapucinski Square. The altars and the furniture were made by the Varaždin master Pič in the first half of the 19th century. Behind the altar is the large painting featuring the Holy Trinity (around 1700). There is a two-storey monastery with a cloister by the church, with the library holding a valuable incunabula collection. To the south, on Vidovski Square, is the church of St. Vitus. First mentioned before the 14th century. The present building and the bell tower date back to 1780. The church has Baroque furnishings. The big main altar is from 1760. Further south, in Zagrebačka Street, is the chapel of St. Roch, built before 1690, a one-nave building with a trefoil sanctuary and the vault decorated with valuable early Baroque mural paintings.
On the western outskirts of the city, along the road to Ptuj, there is the votive church of Sts. Fabian and Sebastian. It was built in 1681 as a smaller one-nave building. The pews in the church are the work by the Varaždin carpenter Matija Saurer.
Two important palaces of the noble families lie on the outer edges of the former historical centre, outside the walls. The big ErdÂdy Palace is on Kapucinski Square, north of the monastery. This two-storey building in Rococo style was built in the mid-18th century. The main front has three projections, and the central front has a stone portal with composite capitols and the wavy attic.
North of Stari Grad (the Old Town) is one of the most beautiful Varaždin buildings, Keglević Palace. It was first mentioned in 1700. This two-storey building with the high roof has the stone portal with a stone balcony rising over it. Between 1774 and 1775 it was reconstructed in Rococo style by the famous Varaždin builder Jakob Erber.
Varaždin cemetery represents a valuable monument of park architecture, made after the idea of Hermann Haller and landscaped after 1905 as a park with maintained, cut plants following the Baroque model. The cemetery has several artistically formed tombs with architecture and ornamentation from the Biedermeier, historicist, Art Nouveau and more recent styles. The most famous among them are the tombs of the Burić, Harbuval-Chamare and Bauer families, as well as the tombs of the families Jagić and Leitner with statues made by I. Rendić and R. Frangeš-Mihanović.

Ćalinec, a two-storey castle between Maruševec and Vinica. First mentioned in the 16th century as a citadel; converted in the 17th and 18th centuries into a castle. The present aspect with carved wooden stairway, wooden terrace and balcony dates back to the end of the 19th century. The owners of the castle were the Vragovićs (16th c.), then the Patačićs and the Draškovićs who sold it to the KÂroskeny family; the last owner was the Pongratz family.
Jalkovec, a village 4 km south of Varaždin. The old mansion of the noble family of Josipović was levelled in 1910. The two-storey castle based on the design of the German architect P. Schulze-Naumburg was built on it site in 1911. This youngest castle in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje is surrounded by an old park.
Jalžabet, a village 12 km southeast of Varaždin. The two-storey Baroque manor-house with a courtyard was commissioned by Rozalija Somogy-Bedeković in 1744. - The one-nave Baroque parish church of St. Elisabeth (1748) has five valuable Baroque altars (around 1750), the pulpit (1768), a baptismal font, etc. One of the largest tumuli from the Iron Age in Central Europe lies near the village.
Kneginec, ruins of a fortified burg in the village of Kneginec, 8 km southeast of Varaždin. Only the cylindrical tower has been preserved (three towers were collapsed). The legend says that King Andrew II was captured here, after being overthrown by his brother Emeric. The nave of the Gothic church of St. Mary Magdalene was expanded in 1800; a nice porch is in front of the entrance. The church keeps the altars by Vincent Nitel (1811), the cabinet was made by Master Horge (1824) and the paintings of St. Barbara and St. Joseph are works by A. Keller (1811).
Krkanec, a castle in the village of Krkanec, 8 km southwest of Varaždin. According to the inscription on the late Renaissance portal, it was commissioned in 1616 by Count Stjepan Patačić and his wife Barbara Bedeković.
Maruševec, a village 11 km southwest of Varaždin. The parish church of St. George from 1482 with the Gothic polygonal sanctuary (and the sacristy leaning on it) was twice reconstructed and now has three naves, a side chapel and a bell tower (1745) in front of the front façade. It keeps the sepulchral slab of Baltazar Vragović from the 17th century, church vessels from the 17th and 18th centuries and an osculatorium (1669). The parish home has the coat of arms of the noble family of Vragović. Their coat of arms (from 1618) is found also on the Maruševec castle, which changed several owners after the Vragovićs (among them also the Patačićs); A. Schlippenbach had it reconstructed in historicist style. - The chapel in nearby Druškovec holds a 17th-century ciborium and chalices from 1664 and 1706.
Šaulovec, a castle 8 km southwest of Varaždin. In the 16th century mentioned as a mansion, expanded by its owner, A. Kiš, in 1791, who turned it into a castle. Today's castle was added and reconstructed in historicist style by the same family in 1902. Several rooms have preserved tile stoves and pieces of furniture from the beginning of the 20th century. A small park is near the castle. The castle is today a catering establishment.
Varaždin Breg, a village 10 km south of Varaždin, on the road Varaždin - Zagreb.
There is the 17th-century castle of Seketin in the region of Varaždin Breg, partly owned by the family of Nada Puttar-Gold.
Vidovec, a village 8 km west of Varaždin. A two-storey castle with a park, dating from the beginning of the 19th century, is in the centre of the village. The castle has a key-shaped base. It used to belong to the counts of Petheö de Gerse, later to Samuilo Bužan, Baron Kušević and Donat Lukavski. The parish church, erected in 1830, holds sepulchral slabs of the local nobility. The church is painted with frescoes featuring biblical scenes and figures of saints.

81. VARAŽDINSKE TOPLICE, a town, spa and health resort in the Bednja valley and on the slopes of Toplička Gora and Kalnik Mountain in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje, 12 km southeast of Varaždin and 69 km northeast of Zagreb. This area has been populated ever since the pre-history; important finds from the ancient period. From the 1st to the 4th century the Romans were building Aquae Iasae on the habitat of the Pannonian-Illyrian tribe of the Iasae (Iassi), as a large thermal centre with a habitation. The representative public buildings were found on the topmost terrace: the spa with pools and drainage system, a large basilical hall with exedra in form of an apse and painted mural ornamentation and the representative forum (26 m x 23 m), surrounded by porches and the capital with three temples: the Jupiter Temple (7 m x 9 m), the Juno Temple and the Minerva Temple (both 5 m x 4 m). The exquisite juvenile marble statue of Minerva, about 2 m high, dating from the 1st/2nd century, was found in the Minerva Temple. This type of forum is rarely found in the Roman Empire. The nymphaeum with interesting icono-graphy (a nymph on the dolphin, Europe on the bull, Eros on the hippocampus). According to the inscriptions, the nymphaeum was commissioned by Marcus Fabius Fabullus during the reign of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (161-170). The elaborately carved sculptures were made of marble from Pohorje (near Maribor, Slovenia) in a local workshop. Several epigraphic monuments, altars, capitols and architectonic plastics have been excavated. - In the southern part of the hills of the spa a residential part of the settlement with ruins of wooden (1st to 2nd c.) and later stone architecture (3rd to 4th c.) have been found. Aquae Iasae were damaged in the war with the Marcomanni (second half of the 2nd c.) and restored under Emperor Constantine (beginning of the 4th c.). Already at the end of the 4th century, the devastated habitation was flooded by mineral water, leaving behind thick travertine deposits. - The viceroy (ban) Aleksije (1110- 1116) bestowed the spa upon the Zagreb Chapter, who built there a fortified town, reconstructed in 1617 and its present aspect dates from 1695. It houses the Native Museum (with archaeological, balneological, cultural and historical collections). The ethnographic collection is accommodated in an old wooden house with the thatched roof. Residential buildings in the heart of this picturesque place date back to the 16th century (Kirinić House, 1526). The 18th-century buildings include the school (1760) and the parish house, while Constantine's spa with the inn, reconstructed in classicist style (B. Felbinger, 1820) and the public baths (1844) date from the 19th century. The local builder A. Samobor built several houses in the second half of the 19th century (Veronek House, 1850). - The chapel of the Holy Spirit (reconstructed in 1774) is on the cemetery. The Gothic parish church of St. Martin, with the polygonal sanctuary, a side chapel and the bell tower by the nave, is situated near the old part of the town. It houses the marble altars by F. Robba: St. Catherine's altar (around 1733), St. Barbara's altar (1738) from the Zagreb Cathedral and the Baroque organ made by the master A. Römer (1765) with sculptures of playing angels. - The park has been maintained ever since 1820.

82. VELIKA GORICA, a town 16 km south of Zagreb, an integral part of Greater Zagreb. First mentioned under the name of Gorica in 1228. King Bela IV chartered it in 1242. The archaeological finds date back to the pre-historic (the culture of tumuli with urns), ancient (Roman tombs from the early period of the empire) periods and the early Middle Ages (artefacts, pottery of the Carolingian cultural circle). - The so-called Turopoljski Grad in the centre of Velika Gorica is a two-storey tower of a rectangular ground-plan (around 1765) with a porch in the ground floor facing the park. It used to seat the "Noble Municipalities of Turopolje"; the hall on the first floor (stucco, fresco ornamentation) used to host assemblies ("spravišća"). The building houses the Museum of Turopolje (founded in 1960), with archaeological, ethnographic, cultural and historical collections. The parish church of the Annunciation of Mary (1686-1690) was restored in the historicist style by H. Bollé in 1893; the church furniture dates from the same period. The Galženica Gallery has been within the Peoples' University since 1980.

Buševec, a village 10 km southeast of Velika Gorica. The wooden chapel of the Holy Apostles (1768) has its interior painted with figural and ornamental paintings. It has altars, chalices, mass vestments from the 17th to the 19th century. The ruins of the Roman road are found in the village.
Donja Lomnica, a village 5 km west of Velika Gorica. Finds from the Roman period (a 2nd-century grave, fragments of the Roman road). The wooden two-storey Modić-Bedeković manor-house, built in 1806, forms together with the farm houses and trees a harmonious site. The mansion is a fine example of autochthonous profane rural architecture typical of the lower nobility.
Lukavec, a castle in Turopolje, 9 km west of Velika Gorica. Its ground-plan reveals the form of a quadrangular citadel with an arcaded courtyard and four prismatic angular towers. Above the entrance with the Baroque portal and coat of arms (1752) there is a high tower; the chapel of St. Lucia used to stand below it; it hosted the assembly of the Turopolje noble families. The building has loopholes and is surrounded by moats. Before this massive Baroque castle was erected, there was a wooden town, first mentioned in the 15th century.
Šćitarjevo, a village 8 km northwest of Velika Gorica. The seat of the Illyrian tribe of the Andautonians and the Roman municipium of the Upper Pannonia, Andautonia. The town had the form of an irregular hexagon. The excavations include the foundations of Roman buildings, a thermal complex, fragments of the road as well as of mural paintings with ornamentation, stucco with floral decoration, tools, jewellery, vessels, glass, coins of the emperors (from the rule of Titus to the rule of Vales, 1st to 4th c.), inscriptions (Herenia Etruscila from the mid-3rd c., the sacrificial altar dedicated to the god of the Sava river) and reliefs (the relief with Nemesis alludes to the gladiator spectacles - a wooden amphitheatre ?). Stone monuments have been found on many farms (sarcophaguses). - The church of St. Martin was first mentioned in 1334. The present church was reconstructed between 1758 and 1768. This one-nave building has its sacristy attached to the rounded sanctuary, the belfry is at the main front and there is a side chapel (the older part of the church). There is a stone fence around the church (1772). The church has partly preserved Baroque furnishing: the Pieta (1732), statues, the osculatorium (1698), the monstrance (1765), two reliquaries, a bell from 1630 and the bell by J. Friedmann of Zagreb (1761). The column featuring the Sorrowful Christ dates back to 1771.
Velika Mlaka, a village 9 km southwest of Zagreb. The wooden chapel of St. Barbara was first mentioned in 1642. Reconstructed on several occasions; its present aspect dates back to around 1867, when the belfry in front of the façade was erected (completely restored from 1972 to 1977). This is a one-nave chapel with a three-sided sanctuary; the sacristy leans on the sanctuary. The chapel has rich ornamentation: the coffered tabulate is painted with floral motifs, while the wooden planks of the rocks in the interior are painted with decorative motifs, flowers in vases and several saint figures, among which the most interesting from the iconographic aspect is the one featuring Kümmernisse (the Sorrows) with the donor M. Basarović (1759). The painting of the chapel, performed by many anonymous masters, lasted from 1710 to 1759 (the oldest layer from 1699 has been destroyed). Apart from the side altar of St. Barbara (1679), featuring the cycle from the life of this saint and the Passion of Christ, there are also the altars of Our Lady of the Snows (1701) and of the Assumption of Christ (1759). The bell is a work by C. Seisser of Graz (1642).
Vukovina, a village 4 km southeast of Velika Gorica. The one-nave late Baroque and classicist parish church of St. Mary of Visitation has a chapel with a lantern above the nave, the rounded apse of the sanctuary and the sacristy near it; the belfry is added to the church. The furniture dates back to the period of reconstruction (around 1805) and the Baroque period (osculatorium, chalice). The organ was made by J. Brandl from Maribor (1904). - In nearby Staro Čiče there is a wooden two-storey parish curia (1831). The one-nave wooden curia called Alapić (with details of Rococo style) has a high four-sided roof.

83. VELIKI TABOR, a mediaeval fortified burg in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje, 3 km east of Desinić. Records mention it also as Vingrad and Vrbovec.

It was most likely built by the Ratkajs, after I. Korvin bestowed upon them the land in this part of Zagorje in 1502. The town remained their property all up to the extinction of the family in 1793. After that it was alternately state or private property; between the two world wars it belonged to the painter O. Iveković. The late Gothic fortress, pointed at the access side, stands on a not very high hill. It was subsequently encircled by walls with four wide semicircular towers; the upper floor is consoled lengthwise the longer side of the walls. The burg has not been significantly reconstructed and it mainly preserved its original aspect. The walls have still preserved late Gothic and Renaissance details: the coat of arms of the stone-mason and the stone-mason's signs, the biforium, bay windows, three-storey arched porches in the yard. The whole plateau was once surrounded by the outer defence wall with the pentagonal bastion, preserved until the present.

84. VINICA, a small town in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje, 15 km west of Varaždin. First mentioned in 1353 as a mediaeval fortress. The ruins of Vinica fortress, first mentioned in 1353, are situated nearby. Vinica has the parish church of St. Mark. The remains of the Gothic church mentioned in 1334 include the western part of the nave, today's sanctuary, and a part of the tower finished between 1768 and 1771. Material of an earlier building (bases and capitols from the 13th century and stone lion figures) was used in the construction of a new church (1808). The church has a Roman stele, a Renaissance epitaph of Benko Turoczy (died in 1616) and his wife, née Ratkaj, the tomb-stone of the historian Nikola Istvanfy (died in 1616) and his wife Elizabeta Bot de Bajna (died in 1597), and of F. Kerzer Radovanski (died in 1619), a Gothic custody with a high finial with sea-spiders and the stone pulpit with a caryatid in the angel form from the late Baroque period. The altars and the pews date from the same period, and the painting by F. Keller in the sanctuary is from 1815. The church keeps valuable vessels: a late Gothic chalice, a chalice from 1651, two 18th-century chalices, an osculatorium and a silver plate from the 17th century. The coat of arms of Nikola Istvanfy and Elizabeta Bot de Bajna (1604) are built into the wall of the parish office. The former Jesuit summer residence is in the centre of Vinica; later property of the Patačićs; a quadrangular two-storey building with arched corridors (plan 1643). The stone pillory and the measure for grain with the Latin inscription from 1643 and stylised human heads. The well in the immediate vicinity is ornamented with the statue of St. John Nepomuk (end of the 18th c., restored in 1808). The two-storey Dolansky mansion, with a key bearing the Hungarian inscription from 1669 above the main gate, rises on the hill outside the central square of Vinica. The two rooms on the second floor contain late Baroque and classicist mural paintings featuring scenes from the Roman mythology and floral ornamentation (end of the 18th c.). The Rajner mansion (19th c.) has a large open porch with arcades on the southern side. The cemetery of Vinica has valuable monuments, the most prominent of them being the tomb of the KÂroskeny family from 1841. Opeka Arboretum is in the immediate vicinity of Vinica.

Bajnski Dvori, a part (the eastern wing) of the former castle (1610), 8 km south of Vinica; restored in the second half of the 19th century in the style of historicism. Used to be owned by the Batthyanys (up to 1864), Ivan ErdÂdy; in 1918 destroyed in fire. The remaining parts of the castle and annexes accommodate a hospital. The park has been landscaped; the stone stairway, the lake and the castle chapel in the historicist style have been preserved.
Opeka, a two-storey Baroque manor-house 2 km south of Vinica. Built in the 18th century, reconstructed in the period of romantic historicism. Used to be property of the counts of Drašković and Bombelles. Marko Bombelles planted in the 1850s many exotic trees, creating the famous park (arboretum), protected in 1961 as a nature monument.

85. VOJNIĆ, a town on the right bank of the Radonja river in the region of Kordun;

Klokoć ruins of a fortified town near the Glina river, 12 km south of Vojnić. It has a rectangular ground-plan with a massive cylindrical defence tower. From 1224 the seat of the Klokoč clan; from 1387 owned by the Frankopans, then by the counts of Celjski, Jan Vitovec, in 1530 by Ivan Karlović, and in 1557 it fell under the administration of the Military Border. Abandoned, it was restored around 1681. After that it served as the residential quarter for officers up to the mid-19th century.
Krstinja, ruins of a fortified town, on the southern slopes of Petrova Gora Mountain, 13 km southeast of Vojnić. It has the form of a cylindrical tower encircled by walls of an irregular shape, with four semi-towers. A wall separates its interior into two parts. The way from the antechamber, through the square tower, leads to the defence tower. The town was owned by the Ladihovićs, then taken over by the Frankopans; from 1585 to 1699 it was under the Ottoman Turks.

86. VOLODER, a town on the southern slopes of Moslavačka Gora Mountain in the region of Moslavina, 5 km southeast of Popovača, 12 km northwest of Kutina;
The neo-Gothic parish church of St. Anthony of Padua has a polygonal sanctuary, two side chapels and the belfry at the main front. It was built in 1863 by the builder Vjekoslav Lammer. The interior represents a stylistic whole. It has many valuable objects: a painting by J. Beyer (Graz, 1855), the organ of the Zagreb organmaker A. Šimenc, a Baroque monstrance, a chalice, etc.

87. VRBOVEC, a town in the Lo-nja-Ilova rivers basin, 40 km northeast of Zagreb. First mentioned in 1244. On the property of the Zrinskis (P. Zrinski was born here in 1621) and after the Patačićs there was a castle, of which only the cylindrical tower has been preserved. The parish church of St. Vitus is an old structure renovated in Baroque style, with its belfry by the sanctuary and a porch along the main front. The church has Baroque altars, a large wooden cross, a chalice from 1772, an osculatorium from 1725, a monstrance, a reliquary. The bells were cast by Schifrer (Zagreb, 1803) and A. Papst (Varaždin, 1846). The parish house (1818) is the most distinguished of the period multi-storey houses in the town. The chapel of the Epiphany (a one-nave building with side conchae) and the mausoleum of the De Piennes family made of the Swedish granite, a work by H. Ehrlich and V. Kovačić (191 -1917), are located at the cemetery.

Dubrava, a village 12 km southeast of Vrbovec. The Dubrava estate was first mentioned in 1094, when King Ladislas bestowed it upon the Zagreb diocese. In the Middle Ages, the episcopal town was encircled by a wall with seven towers and a pretty wide moat. Within the walls there was a castle of a quadrangular groundplan, with four angular towers. This is where the session of the Diet (sabor) was held in 1527 when Ivan Zapolja was elected Croatian king. The fortification system was destroyed by the Ottoman Turks in 1552. - The late Gothic church of St. Margaret, with a high belfry at its side, was reconstructed in Baroque style in the 18th century. Of the Gothic chapel of St. Martin (once the parish church) -only the sanctuary has been preserved.
Gornji Tkalec, a village 11 km north of Vrbovec. In 1425 the church of St. Mary was first mentioned, which was granted to the Jesuits of Zagreb in 1611, and in 1783 to the Uniate diocese. The two-storey castle of a quadrangular ground-plan with the plain front typical of the early Baroque is today in dilapidated condition. It has a portico facing the yard. The chapel of St. Mary, of a quadrangular ground-plan and with a small wooden tower, is part of the castle. The chapel has early Baroque altars, paintings, flags, antependium, etc. The sacristy features the sepulchral slab of the Uniate bishop, Bazilije Božičković (1785).
Gradec, a village 6 km northeast of Vrbovec. Two fortifications of the Zagreb bishops used to stand there. Having been deserted the 18th century, the bishop's palace was erected on the site. The late Baroque parish church of the Wounded Christ (around 1780) has the structured front with a belfry rising from it. The dome features several mural paintings (the Passion of Christ). There is also the pulpit with statues of the evangelists and the coat of arms of the donor J. Branjug (1746), the monstrance from 1741, the chalice with enamelled miniatures from 1748, the votive painting from 1780, the missal with silver frames from the 18th century. The Diocese Museum in Zagreb holds, among other church items, the paintings by J. Beyer (mid-19th c.). The late Baroque mansion (commissioned by M. Vrhovac) is near the church.
Lovrečina, a castle 11 km north of Vrbovec. This fortification situated in the plain was encircled by the moat in the Middle Ages (hence its name Lovrečina town); it was built on the property of the Gostovićs, in the 16th century owned by the Gregorijanecs, and afterwards it changed frequently its owners. The castle has an U-shaped ground-plan with cylindrical towers at two corners. It was expanded and reconstructed in the 19th century in the style of historicism.
Lovrečka Varoš, a village 5 km north of Vrbovec. The 14th-century church was a part of the Gostovićs' property. Today's one-nave parish church of St. Lawrence was built in late Baroque style. It has a rounded sanctuary with the sacristy leaning on it, while the belfry rises on the side of the nave. Two late Baroque stone statues rise in front of the façade. The church has a Baroque pulpit in the form of "Jonah's Fish", an isolated example of this iconographic motif in Croatia.
Pogančec, a village 9 km northwest of Vrbovec. The church of St. Mary of Loreto has the ground-plan with a unique elongation, with four slender columns bearing the dome above the nave, and four other columns bearing the vault above the sanctuary; the sacristy adjacent to it. The bell tower rises from the main front which still has its richly structured Baroque façade (once painted with frescos). The church was finished probably in 1790 (date inscription on the gate). In the late Baroque period it assumed classicist tendencies (Baroque classicism). The church has three Baroque altars.