J - K
51. JAKLJAN, a small island in the Elaphite Islands, southeast of the Pelješac Peninsula, between the island of Olipa in the north-west, the island of Šipan in the east and south-east and the island of Mljet in the south-west. Ruins of the Benedictine church of St. Sidor.
52. JANJINA, a village in the interior of the Pelješac Peninsula, at the foot of the Gradina hill (244 m), 2 km from the Drače harbour on the north-eastern coast.
53. JELSA, a small town and port on the northern coast of the island of Hvar.
Grapčeva Cave, an archaeological site below the village of Humac on the southern slopes of the central part of Hvar. The cave is 31.5 m long and 32.7 m wide. The oldest cultural layer belongs to the Neolithic (painted pottery of the Hvar culture). Human bones found in Grapčeva Cave indicate that it was also used for cult ceremonies.
54. JESENICE, a village in the littoral part of Poljice, 8 km northwest of Omiš.
Around 1064 a distinguished person from Split, Petar Crni (Peter the Black), built a monastery on the location of Supetar (manuscript Supetar Cartulary, written mostly in the 12th c., important source for the study of social, political and cultural events). At this location are also the foundations of an early Christian church from the 6th-7th century and the remains of an early Croatian church from the 11th century. The epitaph of Peter the Black was also found here. The mediaeval church of St. Stephen (the pre-Romanesque altar partition has been preserved) was built on the foundations of a double early Christian basilica on the Jesenice cemetery. Its altar features a Renaissance sculpture of St. Stephen Protomartyr, attributed to the stonemasonry workshop of Nikola Firentinac (Nicholas the Florentine).
55. KALI, a village and harbour on the south-eastern coast of the island of Ugljan, 3 km southeast of Preko.
The village was first mentioned in 1343. In 1698 the Baroque church replaced an earlier structure. On the hill above the village is a small church of St. Peregrine from the 14th century.
56. KAPRIJE, an island in the central part of the Šibenik archipelago, between the islands of Zmajan and Kakan
In the 19th century the island was owned by the aristocratic family Ljubić from Šibenik and from 1500 by the aristocratic family Divnić (Difinico). The first settlers on the island were mentioned in the 15th century. From 1510 Kaprije was the shelter of the refugees from the mainland, who fled from the Turks. The church in Kaprije dates back to the 16th-17th century (extended in 1801).
57. KAŠTELA, seven small towns (administratively the City of Kaštela) in the central Dalmatian littoral, northwest of Split.
In ancient times Kaštela were a part of Salona and Tragurium, comprising numerous rustic villas and mansions. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Kaštela field was populated by the Croats, who founded the first habitations at the foot of Kozjak. Later they became the estates of the -royal family of Trpimirović, with the seat in Klis and outhouses in Biaći. During the Turkish invasions (15th/16th c.), the owners of Katela estates from Split and Trogir built fortifications on the coast. The rural population from the area below Kozjak also settled there for the reasons of security.
Kaštel Sućurac, the first citadel on the coast, was built by the Archbishop of Split, A. Gualdo, in 1392. The citadel built on Gualdo's estate was extended by Archbishop B. Averoldo in 1488. It got its final form in 1510, under Archbishop B. Zane. The citadel (kaštel) consists of the remains of the oldest tower, an enclosed yard and the fortified Gothic palace - summer mansion. On the location of an earlier habitation on the hill is a small church of St. George of Putalj, referred to in the charters with the deed of donation by Dukes Trpimir (AD 852) and Mutimir (AD 892), kept in the parish church.
Kaštel Gomilica was built in the first half of the 16th century by Benedictine nuns from Split, on the estate (Pustica) donated to them in 1078 by King Zvonimir. They also consecrated the Romanesque church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian in 1160. A citadel on a small island was erected in the 16th century, for the purpose of defence against the Turks. There is also the Baroque church of St. Jerome. The new parish church features a painted wooden crucifix, a work by F. Bakotić (18th c.).
Kaštel Kambelovac was built by the aristo-cratic family Cambi from Split (1589). The citadel was surrounded by the sea but was later connected with the mainland by filling up and levelling. On the coast is the fortified house of the Cambi brothers, dating back to the 16th century. In the middle of the citadel is a cylindrical tower and a palace with a richly adorned balcony in Renaissance style.
Kaštel Lukšić was built by the aristocratic family Vitturi from Trogir, at the end of the 15th century. It has the shape of a large fortified Renaissance palace - summer mansion, surrounded by the sea in the past and today connected with the mainland. In the middle of it is a yard with Renaissance arcades. The old parish church dates back to 1515, built in Gothic-Renaissance style. The altar of Bl. Arnir was moved from the Split monastery of the same name into the new parish church in the 19th century. The altar is a work by Juraj Dalmatinac (George the Dalmatian) from 1445. - In the field is a small church of St. George from the 9th century, and on the location of the former village of Ostrog is a small church of St. Jerome from the 12th century.
Kaštel Stari was built in 1481 by the humanist, writer and military commander Coriolanus Ćipiko from Trogir; the citadel was restored in 1492 after a fire. On the coastal side it looks like a mansion and in the middle of it is a cloister with arcades. In Kaštel Stari is also a small Renaissance church of St. Joseph and the Baroque parish church.
Kaštel Novi was built in 1512 by Pavao Ćipiko, a nephew of Coriolanus Ćipiko. It is shaped as a free-standing tower. The Renaissance church of St. Roch (Rocco) from 1586, the Town Loggia (18th c.) and the clock tower are the most important buildings in Kaštel Novi.
Kaštel štafilić was named after the first owner, Stjepan Stafile from Trogir, who built a citadel on the islet and connected it with the mainland through a drawbridge. The preserved structures include a tower, a Renaissance fortified building and the citadel of the Pera family. The parish church from the 18th century was built in the Renaissance-Baroque style by Ignatius Macanović. West of it is the unfinished tower Nehaj. At the locality of the palace of the Croatian ruling family Trpimirović in Biaći are the remains of the church of St. Martha.
Biaći (Bijaći, Bihaći), an area 5 km northeast of Trogir, at the contact point between the Trogir part and the Lower Kaštela part of the Velo field. It was first mentioned in two old Croatian documents from AD 852 and AD 892. At the locality of Stombrate are the remains of an early Croatian church of St. Martha, mentioned in 1197. It is a three-nave structure with an angular apse and a bell tower on the front, built on the remains of an early Christian three-nave basilica. The remains of other structures, as well as the late antique and early Croatian cemetery have been discovered close to the ruins. Numerous fragments of "pleter" (interlacery ornaments) from the 9th and the 10th centuries have been found as well. Interesting are the parts of the altar partition, pediments and beams, and particularly the reconstructed quadrilateral ciborium (today kept at the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments in Split) with part of an inscription. Six stone lintels have also been found in the vicinity of the church. They belonged to the buildings of the ducal palace. Biaći was one of better equipped occasional residences of the Croatian national rulers. - The church of St. Martha was probably destroyed during Turkish invasions.
58. KISTANJE, a village 25 km west of Knin.
In the Middle Ages it was a habitation in the County of Luka. In the village of Ivoševci near Kistanje are the ruins of a Roman camp Burnum. The remains of a late mediaeval church have been found in nearby Čučevo, and south of Kistanje, near the Krka river, is the Orthodox monastery Krka.
Burnum, an archaeological site, a Roman camp and town, 2.5 km north of Kistanje. It is also popularly called Šuplja Crkva (Hollow Church) or Trojanov Grad (Trojan's Town). The remains include a praetorium and the foundations of several rooms; only two of the original five arches have been preserved (at the end of the 18th c. Alberto Fortis mentioned three of them).
Đevrske, a village 10 km southwest of Kistanje. Two early Croatian graveyards have been found in the village area, containing valuable archaeological finds such as earrings and rings, as well as several stelae. Another important site is a late mediaeval cemetery with gables. In recent times another two mediaeval cemeteries have been discovered.
Krka, an Orthodox monastery and the church of St. Archangel on the Krka river. The church of St. Archangel was erected in 1422 on the location of an earlier Gothic structure. The Turks devastated the church around 1530 but it was restored on several occasions. The monastery buildings (18th-19th c.), the church and the bell tower are situated around a rectangular cloister with arcades. The monastery has its archives and a library with valuable items from the 16th to the 20th century, a collection of icons (painting on wood St. John the Baptist from the 14th/15th c., work by the so-called Master of the Tkon Crucifix), silverware and embroideries.
Parčić, a village in Bukovica, 14 km northwest of Kistanje. It features an early Croatian church from the 13th century.
Smrdelje, a village 8 km southwest of Kistanje. The broader area of the village comprises several prehistoric tumuli. The remains of Roman architecture are found on two localities, as well as several graves from the early Croatian period. The largest graveyard was on Debeljak, where the Croatian pagan burials from the 8th/9th century have been established. The site also includes early Croatian graves from the 9th/10th century; fetters from the 8th century.
59. KLEK, a village on the north-western coast of the bay of Klek - Neum, 12 km south of Opuzen.
The quadrangular Monković tower with a chapel and the remains of a wall from the 17th-18th century have been preserved in Klek. Above the village are the ruins of the ancient town of Smrden-grad (defence walls, tower, chapel); close to it is a large necropolis of stelae.
60. KLEK - NEUM, a bay southeast of the mouth of the Neretva, in the Mali Ston channel, separated from it by the Klek peninsula.
The Dubrovnik Republic relinquished the region of Klek - Neum to the Turks in the war between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire (second half of the 17th c.) as an exit to the sea and a protection corridor between the territories held by Dubrovnik and the Venetian territories (in Dalmatia). For the last time the Turks used the bay for military purposes while withdrawing after the entering of Austria into Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878.
61. KLIS, a small town in the hinterland of Split, at a pass between Mosor and Kozjak, 9 km northeast of Split.
The importance of Klis was already emphasized by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (10th c.). From the 9th century Klis was the seat of the Croatian dukes and kings of the Trpimirović family; Klis was also mentioned by Duke Trpimir in his charter from AD 852 as his court (in curtis nostra). After the period of national rulers, the fortress of Klis and the surroundings estates were under various Croatian feudal lords as a royal fief. It was taken by the Turkish army in 1537. As the seat of the sanjak, it was fortified and a mosque with a minaret was built as well. During the Candian war, in 1648, it came under the Venetians, who fortified the town according to modern strategic principles and converted the mosque into a church. The present aspect of Klis dates back to the times of the last restoration by the Venetians. - Below the fortress is a newer part, developed after the withdrawal of the Turks. In Klis is also the old Turkish fountain. The parish church features the frescoes by V. Parać.
Gornji Muć, a village 25 km of Split. In Roman times it was the settlement Andetrium; remains of architectural forms and epitaphs. In 1871 an adorned fragment of a beam with the inscription of the Croatian duke Branimir and the year AD 888 was found near the church of St. Peter. The inscription is: Branimiri annor(um) Xpi (christi) Sacra de Virg(ine) carne(m) ut su(m)ps(it) s(acrum) DCCCLXXX et VIII vi q(ue) indic(tione) (Zagreb, Archaeological Museum). At this location was an early Croatian church, probably an adapted ancient structure. Around it is an early Croatian graveyard.
62. KNIN, a town in the northern part of Dalmatia, on the right bank of the Krka river, 56 km northeast of Šibenik.
Several Roman graves have been discovered below the fortress and the remains of architectural forms on the Spas hill (Salvatore) indicate that a Roman settlement stood here. Knin was first mentioned in the 10th century by (Constantine Porphyrogenitus) under the name of Tenen, as a town and the centre of the parish of the same name. During the period of the early Croatian state it was also an occasional residence of national rulers (Trpimir, Muncimir, Svetoslav, Držislav, Zvonimir and Petar). Around 1040 the Knin diocese was established, its jurisdiction extending to the Drava river, with the "Croatian bishop" at its head. Knin was also the seat of the Croatian aristocracy (šubići Bribirski and Nelipići); for almost two centuries Knin was under the Ottomans and in 1688 it was taken by the Venetians, who held it until 1797. West of Knin is a huge mediaeval fortress erected in the mid-10th century; its present aspect dates back to the beginning of the 18th century, when it was separated from the Spas hill on its northern side by an artificial lane. The fortress is one of the largest fortification structures in Dalmatia. It is divided into the upper, medium and lower town, connected by drawbridges. The oldest is the lower town in the northern part of the fortress, while the medium and upper towns were built in the late Middle Ages. At the beginning of the 18th century, several local masters (Ivan Macanović and his son Ignacije) took part in the construction of the Knin fortress ramparts. The fortress housed the Museum of Croatian Antiquities (today the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments in Split), established in 1893. A late antique habitation and an early Croatian settlement have been found on the Spas hill.
Biskupija, a village 5 km southeast of Knin. It is famous for the remains of early mediaeval monuments. The archaeological research, conducted by Father Lujo Marun at the end of the 19th century, marked the beginning of the Croatian national archaeology. The archaeological finds were the first exhibits of the Museum of Croatian Antiquities in Knin. The area of Biskupija was mentioned in historical sources as the Five Churches of Kosovo, the location where in 1088 the Croatian king Zvonimir had its seat of throne and where he was executed. Four of these five early mediaeval churches have been discovered, the remains of the fifth church are under the present Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity. The foundations of a three-nave church and a monastery complex have been found at the locality of Crkvina. The church had three quadrangular written apses and along the front also two separate rooms with massive walls which were, most probably, supporting the bell tower. It was built in the 10th century at the latest. Numerous fragments of church stone furniture have been found next to the church. Very interesting are the parts of an altar partition, among which are the gable with a flat presentation of Our Lady and a stone grating with symbols of the Evangelists around the Virgin with Child a bove an unknown saint and the figure of a prelate, widely known as the proto-figure of Our Lady. Among epigraphical finds, the most interesting are the inscriptions DVX GLO(riosus) - glorious duke - and those with the names of the saints: Mary, Stephen and Gabriel. A number of graves have been found in the church and around it, containing valuable finds: swords of a Carolingian type, gold-plated and richly adorned spurs, luxuriously made jewellery. The graveyard was used in the period from the 8th to the 16th century.
A memorial church was erected on Crkvina in 1938, according to the designs by Ivan Meštrović. Its interior has been adorned with Meštrović's sculptures and the frescoes by Jozo Kljaković (almost completely destroyed). The foundations of a large three-nave church (9th c.), with three prominent semicircular apses and a massive bell tower on the front, have been found at the locality of Stupovi. It is the church of St. Cecilia, related also to Zvonimir's death (hence the name of the area, Cecela). The foundations of a smaller one-nave church from the 9th century have been found on the locality of Lopuška Glavica. The church and its surroundings feature a number of early Croatian graves with jewellery (earrings, rings). The church on Bukorovića Podvornica is a one-nave structure with a rounded apse on the rear, dating back to the 9th century. Parts of the pavement and the base of the altar partition have been preserved in its interior. Around the church are several early Croatian graves with jewellery (earrings, rings). The remains of the churches on Crkvina, Stupovi and Lopuška Glavica have been conserved and partly reconstructed.
Golubić, a village 9 km north of Knin. An early Croatian graveyard and the fragments of church furniture from the 9th/10th century have been found near the Orthodox church. Golubić is famous for the finds of gold jewellery from the beginning of the 7th century.
Kapitul, an archaeological site southeast of Knin; the first archaeological research of early Croatian monuments was conducted here in 1885-1886. The remains of the three-nave church of St. Bartholomew, erected in 1203 by the praepositus Dobroslav, have been found here. The remains of an earlier church from the 10th century include fragments of church furniture adorned with "pleter" (interlacery ornaments) and occasionally with inscriptions. The epigraphical finds include two tablets (parts of a pulpit) with "pleter" (interlacery ornaments), containing the inscriptions of the names of two Croatian rulers, Svetoslav and Držislav (10th c.), along with the inscription dux Croatorum (Croatian duke). Several graves from the early Croatian and later periods have been discovered on Kapitul (earrings, rings and spurs).
Kijevo, a village 18 km southeast of Knin. Several stelae have been found around the church of St. Michael, and on a plateau below the church are the remains of an early Christian church. At the locality of Pržine is an early Croatian graveyard. A graveyard with stelae has also been found near Vujića Kuće.
Mokro Polje, a village 21 km northwest of Knin. The remains of an early Christian church with a transept have been found here. The transept gives the church the aspect of a cross. The nave of the church is enclosed by a narthex; the apse is semicircular on the inner side and polygonal on the outer side.
Orlić, a village 7 km southeast of Knin. It is known for the remains of a Roman mansion (villa rustica) with a thermal spring. Some of the rooms had mosaic floors. In one of them an inscription has been found.
Plavno, a village 17 km north of Knin. It was first mentioned in 1423. Several localities comprise remains of fortified, prehistoric habitations. Parts of early Croatian church furniture, richly adorned with "pleter" (interlacery ornaments), have been found on Đurića Groblje (Đurić graveyard); here are also the early Croatian and the mediaeval graveyard with stelae. Above the Tukleča gorge are the remains of a mediaeval fortification, the so-called Turska Kaca (Turkish Cask), built on several occasions.
63. KOLOČEP, a small island and village of the same name in the Dubrovnik archipelago (Elaphite Islands), 7 km northwest of Gruž.
The remains of a farm and mansion complex have been found in the western cove of the island. The small churches of St. Anthony of Padua, St. Nicholas and St. Srđ belong to the regional group of pre-Romanesque architecture with a cupola. The parish church, finished in the 15th century, contains several sculptures from the 14th and the 16th centuries. On the western side of the island is a slender tower, built at the end of the 16th century. The residential architecture from the 16th but mostly from the 19th century has architectural features of the area of Dubrovnik country mansions.
64. KOMIŽA, a town and harbour at the foot of the Hum hill (587 m), on the western coast of the island of Vis.
The settlement was first mentioned in the 12th century. The citadel (kaštel) in the port was built in 1585. - In the 13th century, the Benedictines founded the monastery of St. Nicholas, so-called Muster on an elevation above the settlement. The oldest core of the monastery is a one-nave Romanesque church with a semicircular apse from the 13th century. In the period of the 14th-17th century a large five-nave church was built: its central nave dates back to the beginning of the 16th century and the large Baroque sanctuary to 1652. Two high square towers in Romanesque style have been preserved of the original monastery fortifications; the tower above the church front was converted into a bell tower in 1770. - The church of Our Lady of Gusarica consists of three one-nave churches of the same size, which are connected with arches in the interior. The oldest of them is the middle church (16th c.), while the side churches date back to the 17th and the 18th centuries. The church features Baroque altars, an organ from 1670 and an outstanding silver relief of Our Lady of the Rosary from the 17th century. The fortified church of St. Roch (Rocco) was erected in 1763, and the church of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows (the New Church) dates back to 1756. - The Art Nouveau building of the Community Centre from the beginning of the 20th century is a work by the architect A. Bezić; the Memorial Centre was designed by S. Planić, the author of the reliefs and mosaics is B. Mardešić. The Gallery of Đuro Ti-ljak has been open in Komiža since 1966, and since 1984 also the Gallery of Boris Mardešić.
Palagruža, a group of islets in the open sea, roughly equally distant from the island of Lastovo as from the Italian mainland. The group consists of the island of Palagruža (area 20 sq km, population 7), Mala Palagruža (Small Palagruža) Sjeverni and Južni Kamik (Northern and Southern Kamik) and many cliffs. Due to numerous cliffs, shallows and rocks, navigation is very difficult. The largest island, Palagruža, features archaeological sites from the Neolithic (Roman pottery) and a small mediaeval church of St. Michael. On the highest peak of the island (91 m) is an attractive lighthouse (1875); the coves of Stara Vlaka, on the northern coast, and Žalo, on the southern coast, are natural shelters for fishermen's boats. The sea around Palagruža is extremely rich in fish, one of the richest parts of the Adriatic. - About 5.5 km southeast of Palagruža is the islet of Galijola.
65. KONAVLE, a region in southern Dalmatia, southeast of Dubrovnik.
Konavle was first mentioned in the 10th century by Constantine Porphyrogenitus. In the Middle Ages it was a Croatian parish and at the beginning of the 15th century it was annexed to the Dubrovnik Republic. Konavle is rich in prehistoric tumuli and caves. Very famous is the ancient archaeological site in Močići with cultic representations of Silvano and Mithras in stone. In Molunat are the remains of a Roman theatre, as well as of a Roman fishpond and mosaics. Parts of the waterworks for Epidaurus (Cavtat) have been found in Gornje Konavle.
Several necropolises of stelae have been preserved since the Middle Ages (Pridvorje, Brotnjica). A small church of St. Demetrius on Gabrili dates back to the early Romanesque period. Near Dunava are the ruins of the fortified town of Sokol from the 14th century, and in Pridvorje a Renaissance-Baroque duke's palace and a Franciscan monastery from the 15th century, featuring a late Gothic crucifix, made by Juraj Petrović in the mid-15th century. Most of the villages have preserved old complexes of residential structures (Čilipi).
Very important is the folklore of Konavle, which has been cherished and maintained until the present, especially picturesque traditional costumes, which, apart from the prevailing Dinaric elements, also show Mediterranean (women's costumes) and Oriental (men's costumes) influences.
Čilipi, a village 22 km southeast of Dubrovnik. It is famous for its luxuriantly adorned traditional costumes, traditional customs, music and dances. Tourists may also enjoy these beauties because folk music events in the open take place every Sunday, from March to the end of October (several times in the winter months as well). It is also worthwhile to visit the native museum of Konavle, with beautiful exhibits of traditional costumes, jewellery and other artefacts of Konavle.
Pridvorje, a village in the interior of Konavle, 12 km southeast of Dubrovnik. During the Dubrovnik Republic it was the major settlement of the region. The Duke's Palace and the Franciscan monastery with a cloister were built in the 15th century. The monastery church of St. Blaise keeps a Gothic wooden crucifix from the island of Daksa. Near the church of St. Sr are several stelae, the most interesting being the one with the relief of a horseman.
66. KORČULA, a town and port on the north-eastern coast of the island of Korčula, situated on a small peninsula which is connected with the island by a narrow isthmus.
A neo-Baroque stairway (1907) leads from the pier along the open loggia (1584) to the old part of the town. In the middle of the square is the cathedral of St. Mark (only the apses of three naves have been preserved of the original cathedral from the 14th c.). This Gothic structure was finished at the end of the 15th century in the transitional Gothic-Renaissance style. Among the first constructors was Bonino from Milan (main portal, 1412); Hranić Dragošević and Ratko Ivančić also participated in the construction, and at the end of the century also Marko Andrijić (lantern of the bell tower). In 1525 Marko Milić Pavlović built a large votive chapel of St. Roch (Rocco) along the northern cave. The altarpiece of the Holy Trinity in the southern apse is a work by Leandro Bassano. In the sanctuary are the choir stalls (Vicko Tironi, 1795-1796), the ciborium above the main altar with the presentation of the Annunciation (made by Marko Andrijić, 1486-1490), the altarpiece St. Mark with St. Bartholomew and St. Jerome (an early work by Jacopo Tintoretto from 1550), the relief with a motif of Lamb of God from the 13th century, as well as the painting of the Annunciation (with some traits of Tintoretto's style). In the chapel of St. Roch (Rocco), on the Baroque altar of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, all three paintings are works by Carlo Ridolfi (1642); the author of carved figures of the saints on the Baroque marble altar of St. Roch (Rocco) is Franjo Čiočić-Čučić (around 1576). In the ground floor of the bell tower (adapted in 1967-1969) is a baptismal font, with several plastics: Christ Resurrected (Frano Kršinić, 1968), Pieta (Ivan Meštrović, 1915) and Our Lady (Ivo Kerdić, 1926). In the southern nave of the church, next to cannon-balls and halberds from the times of the wars with the Ottomans in 1571, is an icon from the 14th century, The Assumption (Vela Gospa) from the monastery in Badija.
Opposite of the cathedral is the deserted Arneri palace, built in the ornate Gothic style, with a nice Renaissance cloister. Next to it is the Gabrielis palace, built in Renaissance style (16th c.), in which in 1957 the Town Museum was opened, with various exhibits related to shipbuilding, seafaring and stone-masonry of Korčula, and an art gallery. Next to the cathedral is the Bishop's palace (Korčula was the diocesan seat from 1300 to 1828), built in the transitional Renaissance-Baroque style (17th c.), with the rich Abbey Treasury, established in 1954, which features liturgical vessels and mass vestments. Important is also the polyptych by Blaž Jurjev Trogiranin from 1431. On the small square is the Municipal Hall (ground floor with arcades from 1525, the first floor added to it in 1866). Next to it is the chapel of Our Lady of Ploče, erected in 1531 to commemorate the battles of Aragonians and Venetians in front of Korčula in 1483. It houses the painting of Our Lady with a golden shroud from 1722 and two Venetian cannons. The tower Mali Revelin (Small Revelin) got its present aspect in 1499. In front of the Municipal Hall is a pillar, erected in 1569, and opposite of the Hall the church of St. Michael (mentioned in 1408; restored in 1615) with a Renaissance pulpit; the painting on the Baroque marble altar is a work by Domenico Maggioto.
From the old part of the town of Korčula, the gate called Kopnena Vrata (Gate of the Mainland) (1650) leads trough Revelin, a monumental tower of a quadrangular ground-plan (1493-1496), to the bridge. This is the beginning of the way along the former town ramparts. Following this way, one reaches the church of All Saints (beginning of the 15th c., later restored), with the coffered ceiling (painted by Tripo Kokolja around 1713), the polyptych of Our Lady the Coredeemer by Blaž Jurjev Trogiranin (1438-1439) and the ciborium (15th c.) below which is the carved Baroque Pieta by Raphael Donner. The church is connected with a hall which houses the Gallery of Icons, a painting of the local Renaissance school and a procession crucifix by Ivan Progonović (15th c.). In the northern part of the peninsula is the semicircular Tiepolo Tower, and on the western coast, at the brim of the pier, the Barbarigo Tower.
The western coastal way, along a small cove, leads to the Dominican monastery with the two-nave church of St. Nicholas the older nave was finished around 1505 and reconstructed in 1665. The right nave features the altar palla The Martyrdom of St. Peter the Martyr (old copy of Tizian's painting), while the new nave houses the Baroque altar of St. Nicholas (1629). The monastery possesses a collection of works of art.
In the vicinity, on Cape Sveti Nikola (St. Nicholas), is the Memorial Museum of Maksimilijan Vanka (1889-1963), opened in 1968 in a small summer mansion, which houses a collection of the artist's paintings, drawings, terracotta and various documents. From the outskirts in front of the Gate of the Mainland the way leads to the Hober park and the fortress of St. Blaise, erected in 1813 by the English (Fort Wellington), on a hill which dominates above the town. In the outskirts called Biline is the classicist octagonal church of St. Justin.
67. KORČULA, an island in the central Dalmatian archipelago.
The island was inhabited as early as the Neolithic (cave Vela Spilja near Vela Luka, cave Jakasova Spilja above the cove of Rasohatica, Žrnovo) and the Bronze Age. A Greek colony existed here in the 6th and the 5th centuries BC; at that time the island was called Korkyra Melaina (remains of Greek habitations in Lumbarda, in the vicinity of Blato and in Potirna). From 35 BC the island was part of the Roman Empire; traces of Roman settlements have been discovered in the vicinity of Lumbarda, Vela Luka (locality Beneficij), Blago and on Pelegrin. On the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the island became part of the Ostrogoth state (AD 493) and then came under the Byzantine rule (AD 555). In the 9th century it was taken by the Nerentani/Narentini, and in AD 1000 by Venice. In 1180 the island came under the Hungarian-Croatian king (in 1214 the statute of the town and the island were passed). From 1221, during two centuries, the island had several rulers - rulers from Zahumlje, Venice (in 1298 the Genoese fleet defeated the Venetian fleet near Korčula), King Lodovic I (1358), Bosnian rulers (1390) and the Dubrovnik Republic (1413-1417). In the period 1420-1797 the island was under Venice but it retained its autonomy. Due to frequent attacks of the Turkish fleet and pirate ships (all until the beginning of the 18th c.) several important points on the island were fortified (especially the town of Korčula). - After the fall of Venice there was another period of various rulers (1797-1805 Austria, 1805-1813 France, 1813-1815 Great Britain, 1815-1918 Austria). Korčula was under the Italian occupation in the period 1918-1921, and after that was annexed to Croatia. The centre of the island, the town of Korčula, with its cultural and historical heritage, its town ramparts (similar to those of Dubrovnik) ranks among the favourite tourist destinations in southern Croatia. - As for the local economy, shipbuilding (town of Korčula, Vela Luka) and stone cutting (extraction of white marble from a quarry on the eastern coast of the island) have been important branches for centuries.
68. KORITA, a village in the interior of the eastern part of the island of Mljet, 7 km east of Maranovići.
Around a defence tower with loopholes (17th c.) are several country houses built in the transitional Renaissance-Baroque style, similar to that of simpler countryside residence in Dubrovnik. The churches of St. Vitus and Our Lady of the Mount have picturesque belfries "na preslicu" and porches; Renaissance traits.
69. KORNATSKI OTOCI (Kornati Islands), the largest and densest archipelago in the Adriatic Sea; consists of 147 islands, islets and reefs comprising an area of 69 sq km, scattered at an area of 234 sq km. They were named after Kornat, the biggest island (32.62 sq km). Pliny called them Cratea. On the south-western side, toward the open sea, the coasts are extremely steep (cliffs or crowns); the highest cliffs are those on Klobučar (80 m), Mana (65 m), Rašip Veli (64 m) and elsewhere. Due to limestone formation there are no sources or water streams on the Kornati Islands. In some karst depressions, whose bottoms are covered by red soils, water retains almost throughout the year. Brackish water may be found in karst cavities at some 40 locations. Rainwater is collected in cisterns.
In 1980 the islands were set aside as a national park; the present area of Kornati National Park is 234 sq km. The Park is managed by a special management body with the seat in Murter.
From the 14th century the island of Kornat had several names: Insula Sancte Marie, Stomorin Otok, Tarac, Toreta (Tureta). In the 17th century the archipelago got the name Coronati. The Kornati Islands were populated as early as the Neolithic. In recent times there are no permanent habitations; the last of them was mentioned in the 18th century under the name Toreta. The Kornati Islands had long been owned by Zadar. In the 16th century they were under the Venetians, who subleased them to the families from Zadar. The oldest archaeological finds on the island of Kornat are the remains of Illyrian settlements (Stražišće, Toreta) and stone grave-mounds. The remains from Roman times have been found on the hill Toreta; at the foot of the hill, on the southern side are the remains of an early Christian church with a semicircular apse. A smaller church, preserved until the present, was later constructed in it; the lower threshold of the church is a Roman votive inscription. On the very hill is a large quadrangular tower, built at the beginning of the Middle Ages. The remains of a mediaeval tower may also be seen on the islet of Panitula, and on the island of Jadra there is a church from the 16th century.
"On the last day of the Creation God desired to crown his work, and thus created the Kornati Islands out of tears, stars and breath" - wrote George Bernard Shaw. Beautiful nature, a network of countless islands and islets (a folk saying goes: "one island or islet for each day of the year"), the magnificent sea - all this makes the Kornati Islands an attractive destination of numerous excursionists and boaters. The Kornati are a true promised land for boaters and yachting enthusiasts. Numerous coves provide safe shelter to boaters and fishermen. However, the submarine zone is also protected in the National Park and visitors are advised to ask what, how much and in what way may be caught. The islands abound with karst phenomena, cavities, caves, gullies, crevices, and represent the natural habitat of a number of bird species. The islands are a unique pleasure and experience to all those who are keen on bathing in the crystal-clear sea, who appreciate peace and quietness but also feel enthusiastic about eco-tourism without any modern facilities. Boaters spend the nights on their own or rented boats, the other may rent a modest house or just a stone cottage. Those visitors who are not familiar with yachting may learn this at the right place, on the Kornati Islands, in one of the yachting schools that take place in this attractive environment.
70. KOŽINO, a village in northern Dalmatia, 9 km northwest of Zadar. The parish church of St. Michael the Archangel was built in 1522.
71. KRAJ, a village in the south-eastern part of the island of Pašman, 3 km south of the town of Pašman; 300 m from the coast of the Pašman Channel.
The village features a Gothic Franciscan monastery with a church from 1392. The gate leading to the monastery yard was restored in Baroque style in 1669, the church was also reconstructed in Baroque style (at the front is a Renaissance relief of St. Jerome from 1554).
72. KRAPANJ, a small island in the south-eastern part of the Šibenik channel.
In the Middle Ages Krapanj was owned by the Šibenik chapter. During the Turkish invasions, from the end of the 15th century, the island offered shelter to the refugees from the neighbouring villages on the mainland. The Franciscan monastery and the church were built in the 15th-16th century by local masters. The church was finished in 1523 and extended in 1626; the present bell tower was erected in 1907. On the left altar is the painting of Our Lady of Krapanj, a work by a local master from the 15th century. The monastery, reconstructed in 1626 and repaired in 1668, has a Renaissance cloister; the painting of The Last Supper in the refectory is a work by Francesco da Santacroce (16th c.).
73. KUČIŠTE, a village and pier on the Pelješac Peninsula; 6 km west of Orebić.
The core of the village dates back to the 16th century; in the 19th century it spread along the bay by the construction of free standing captain houses in the style of Dubrovnik summer mansions. The most interesting are the houses of the Lazarović family: a late Renaissance two-storey house and a Baroque house from the end of the 18th century. The church of the Holy Trinity was built in 1752; it is one of the most important Baroque churches on the southern Croatian coast. The cemetery features a small Gothic church of St. Luke from the 14th century. - In the hamlet of Zamošće, east of Kučište, are the remains of a Roman country mansion (villa rustica).
74. KUKLJICA, a village and small harbour in the south-eastern part of the island of Ugljan, 8 km southeast of Preko.
Kukljica was first mentioned in 1345; the church was built in 1666 (several Glagolitic inscriptions on the front). In the wooded cove of Kostanj are the ruins of a small Gothic church dating back to the 15th century.
75. KUNA PELJEŠKA, a village in the central part of the interior of the Pelješac Peninsula.
In the 19th century the inhabitants of Dubrovnik built the Gučetić citadel and the first church of St. Stephen on the graveyard (reconstructed at the end of the 19th century). The three-nave church of Our Lady of Loret (1681) is the most monumental Baroque structure of the Dubrovnik region outside the very city of Dubrovnik. The church features marble altars made in the workshop of the Brutapella family, as well as paintings by Celestin Medović. A Franciscan monastery was built next to it in 1705. The birth-house of Celestin Medović houses a collection of his paintings. In the village is also a monument to this great painter, a work by Frano Kršinić.
76. KUPARI, a seaside resort on the western coast of the Župa Bay, 8 km southeast of Dubrovnik, situated on a slope of a small hill.
In the vicinity of Kupari is a fortified residence called Toreta; built by Orsat Đurđević in 1623 for the purpose of defence against the pirates. The square structure with the vaulted ground floor has loopholes on the first floor and on the staircase.